Animations


230 GHz images overplotted with polarization vectors calculated from wind-fed, 3D GRMHD simulations of Sagittarius A* with the time evolution of the 230 GHz flux and polarization fractions. The parameter βw sets the ratio between the ram pressure and the magnetic pressure of the winds. Left: βw=102. Right: βw=106. The orientation and accretion rate of the underlying simulations is set by the observed properties of Wolf-Rayet stellar winds at large radii.

Slices of density in a frame aligned with the time-averaged angular momentum of the gas in wind-fed, 3D GRMHD simulations of Sagittarius A* on a (100 M)2 scale. The parameter βw sets the ratio between the ram pressure and the magnetic pressure of the winds. Left: βw=102. Right: βw=106. Both simulations become magnetically arrested, with the strong magnetic pressure confining the gas to a relatively thin disk.


Absolute value of the rotation measure (RM) integrated from infinity in one particular 3D magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of the (assumed to be) magnetized winds of the ∼ 30 Wolf-Rayet stars in the galactic center over ∼ 1.5 kyr. RMs increase going from green to pink to white, where white includes all rotation measures ≳ the observed value for the magnetar located ∼ 0.1 pc from the black hole. RMs comparable to the magnetar's, though rare in space and time, can be produced at the present day by chance alignment between its line of sight and a shock between two winds.

Volume rendering of a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of the winds of the ∼ 30 Wolf-Rayet stars in the galactic center as they interact, shock-heat, and accrete onto Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the domain. The animation lasts for ∼ 10 kyr and is on a scale of ∼ 0.5 pc.

2D slice in the plane of the sky of the density (left) and temperature (right) in a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of the winds of the ∼ 30 Wolf-Rayet Stars in the galactic center as they interact, shock-heat, and accrete onto Sagittarius A*. The ``stars'' in the simulation are source terms of energy, momentum, and mass that show up as cold, high density circular regions that frequently come into and out of view as they intersect with the central plane. The The animation lasts for ∼ 10 kyr and is on a scale of ∼ 0.5 pc.

Azimuthally averaged electron temperature in a 3D GRMHD simulation that included a separate entropy equation for the electrons based on a physically-motivated model for electron heating in turbulent, magnetized, collisionless plasmas. In this model, low β regions primarily heat electrons while high β regions primarily heat protons, resulting in the highest electron temperatures being concentrated the coronal/jet region. The animation lasts ∼ 4000 M (about a day for Sgr A*) and black lines denote b2/ρ=1 contours.

Total intensity provided by synchrotron emission and absorption as calculated from a 3D GRMHD simulation of Sgr A* including our model for self-consistently evolving the electron thermodynamics. The intensity is measured for an observer at a 45 degree tilt from the spin of the black hole (a=0.5), and is calculated at three different frequencies: 30 GHz (top), 230 GHz (top right), and in the NIR (bottom left). The 30 GHz animation is on a 200 x 200 r_g scale while the higher frequency images are on a 25 x 25 pc scale. Each animation lasts about a day.

Time variability of the spectral energy distribution produced by synchrotron emission, absorption, and Compton scattering from our 3D GRMHD + electron entropy evolution simulation of Sgr A*. Both the NIR and X-ray fluxes are highly time variable, while the radio and mm are relatively steady.